Anatomy of a Footnote


A footnote includes information on who produced the source (authors, editors, translators), what it is called (title of article, book, journal, series title, volume number), and how to locate it (city, state, name of the publisher as well as year of publication; URL). One way to think about formatting this information is to think of a footnote as a sentence. Use commas between the major elements and place a period at the end.

Here are several examples of standard footnote citation according to the guidelines found in Turabian (2007).



Shortened Footnote

A shortened footnote may be used the second time a work is mentioned. This note includes the author's last name only, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. You must have all three of these elements. Do not shorten notes by using the author-only style.

You may choose to use “Ibid” instead of a shortened note, but it must be used correctly. “Ibid” refers to the bibliographic information mentioned in the immediately preceding note. The word “Ibid” is capitalized in the note but not italicized, and it is followed by a period. For more information, see Turabian (2007), pages 155, 157.


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